Tuesday, 26 February 2013

statistic : introduction

Statistics is the study of the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. It deals with all aspects of this, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments.

demerits in statistic

types of statistics-
  • descriptive
  • inferential
  • parametric
  • non parametric

Saturday, 23 February 2013



A characteristic, number, or quantity that increases or decreases over time, or takes different values in different situations.

Two basic types are

(1) Independent variable: that can take different values and can cause corresponding changes in other variables, and

(2) Dependent variable: that can take different values only in response to an independent variable.

research problem : RESEARCH

शोध समस्या 

Identifying and defining a research problem

  • 1. Identifying and Defining a Research Problem
  • 2. Problem! A question raised for inquiry, consideration or solution
  • 3. What do we do with Problems? Ignore them Talk about them Try to solve them
  • 4. What is a Research Problem? A research problem is an issue or concern that an investigator presents and justifies in a research study.
  • 5. What is a research problem? A problem that someone would like to research Anything that a person find unsatisfactory or unsettling , a difficulty of some sort, a state of affairs that need to be changed . A problems involve areas of concerns to researchers, for condition they want to improve , difficulties they want to eliminate , questions for which they want to seek answers .
  • 6. Search for a problem . Read more about your problem. Take notes or keep a research journal. Seek professional advice. Keep the topic interesting. How to Identify a Research Problem
  • 7. Follow a general procedure. identifying the problem situation. Study the available research. Write statement identifying and defining the problem. Have colleagues read your final statement identifying and defining the problem situation. What to do: problem identification and definition


1. Research Title must be reflective of its PROBLEM
2. It must answer the following questions:
• What are you trying to investigate?(VARIABLE)
• What are you trying to find out, determine or discover?(VARIABLE)
• Who question will answer who are the respondents or subjects of the study(POPULATION)
• Where question will indicate the research locale, setting or the place where the research study is conducted.(PLACE)

previous year paper JUNE 06 (code 09)

1. Who said “Man is perfect and education is the manifestation of the perfection already existing in man”.
(A) Gandhi
(B) Froabal
(C) Vivekananda
(D) John Dewey

2. Which philosophy believes in the five following principles-truth, non-stealing, non violence, no sex life, non attachment.
(A) Jainism
(B) Buddhism
(C) Hinduism
(D) Islam

3. Which philosophy is indicated in the following lines:
“education finds it’s purpose, it’s process and it’s means wholly within the child life,
and the child experience”
(A) Idealism
(B) Realism
(C) Naturalism
(D) Pragmalism

4. Match list I with List II
.....List-I..................... List-II
(a) Republic....................(i) Rousseau
(b) Social Contract.............(ii) Plato
(c) My experiments with truth...(iii) Vivekanand
(d) Gitanjali...................(iv) Gandhi
................................(v) Tagore
code a    b    c    d
(A) (i)  (ii) (iv) (iii)
(B) (iii)(ii) (i)  (iv)
(C) (ii) (i)  (iv) (v)
(D) (v)  (ii) (i)  (iii)

5. The type of knowledge in which Idealism believes is:
(A) a priori
(B) posteriori
(C) experiential
(D) experimental

6. The principle of learning by doing was originally propounded by:
(A) Rousseau
(B) Gandhi
(C) Dewey
(D) Tagore

7. The principle of “Education for Good Life” was propounded by:
(A) Pragmatism
(B) Existentialism
(C) Realism
(D) Naturalism

8. Utility and change are basic principles of the philosophy of:
(A) Pragmatism
(B) Realism
(C) Naturalism
(D) Existentialism

9. Social change does not involve:
(A) Urbanization
(B) Westernization
(C) Socialization
(D) Modernization

10. Sociology of education means:
(A) Consideration of education as a social institution
(B) Acceptance of social dominance in education
(C) A study of educated society
(D) To combine education and society while teaching

11. What is the real significance of education is democracy?
(A) It is the birth-right of human being
(B) It helps in political power capturing
(C) It provides good workers
(D) It makes people to behave freely

12. The most powerful tool in the process of modernization of a society is:
(A) The progressive schools
(B) Enlightened citizenship
(C) People’s new ways of living
(D) Science and technology based education

13. The Normal Probability Curve has a:
(A) mean equal to 1 and standard deviation equal to 0
(B) mean equal to 0 and standard deviation equal to 1
(C) mean equal to 3 and standard deviation equal to 3
(D) mean equal to 1 and standard deviation equal to 1

14. The following is not a research method usually used by an educational psychologist:
(A) Introspection
(B) Genetic
(C) Experimental Method
(D) Historical Method

Assertion (A) : In Ex post facto research the researcher does not have control on independent variables.
Reason (B) : Manifestation of independent variables have already occured
(A) (A) alone is true
(B) (B) alone is true
(C) Both (A) and (B) are false
(D) Both (A) and (B) are true

16. Which of the following is not the characteristics of the Probability Sampling:
(A) Every individual has the equal opportunity of being selected
(B) It provides a representative sample
(C) It’s data are used for inferential purpose
(D) It may be selected by identifying some subjects purposefully

17. Attribute variable is a category of:
(A) Independent Variable
(B) Dependent Variable
(C) Confounding Variable
(D) Extraneous Variable

18. The systematic random sample is selected:
(A) When the population is divided into homogeneous categories
(B) When the subjects are selected intentionally
(C) When the sample is drawn out of a properly recorded population
(D) When the subjects are chosen from intact groups

19. Which of the following is affected when a constant is added to every score in the
(A) Mean
(B) Median
(C) Mode
(D) All above

20. The value of a t-ratio computed to ascertain the significance of difference between two
means was found to be significant at 0.05 level of significance. It means that:
(A) the researcher may have 95% confidence on his result
(B) the researcher may have 5% confidence on his result
(C) the researcher may have 50% confidence on his result
(D) the researcher may have 0.05% confidence on his result

21. The type of error involving the acceptance of the null hypothesis when it is false is
known as
(A) Type I error
(B) Type II error
(C) Type III error
(D) Type IV error

22. Which one of the following is not correct:
(A) The simplest measures of dispersion is Range
(B) Semi-inter quartile range is Standard Deviation
(C) Algebraic signs (+ or —) are totally ignored in Mean Deviation
(D) One half the scale between Q3 and Q1 is Quartile Deviation

23. The primary purpose of fundamental research is to:
(A) solve an immediate problem
(B) extend the existing body of knowledge
(C) study the problem of the past
(D) solve a problem for providing information for decision making

24. The distribution is mesokertic in nature when the value of kurtosis is equal to:
(A) 0.236
(B) 0.363
(C) 0.263
(D) 0.326

25. The statistic variance referes to the:
(A) Square of Standard Deviation
(B) Square root of Standard Deviation
(C) Difference between standard deviation and average deviation
(D) difference between mean and a score

26. Standard Error of mean refers to:
(A) Error in the computation of mean
(B) Error in making use of the appropriate formula for the computation of mean
(C) The difference between sample mean and population mean
(D) The difference between the values of mean and standard deviation

27. The distribution is platykurtic in nature when the value of kurtosis is:
(A) greater than 0.263
(B) greater than 0.253
(C) greater than 0.243
(D) greater than 0.233

28. Individuals with _____________ intellectual ability are highly vulnerable to the attack of self-destructive intelligence syndrome.
(A) Very high
(B) Moderate
(C) low
(D) Very low

29. Which of the following is a projective technique of personality measurement:
(A) Questionnaire
(B) Rating Scale
(C) Rorschach Ink Blot
(D) Interview

30. Which one of the following was not a humanistic psychologist:
(A) Eric Frowm
(B) Rollo May
(C) Carl Rogers
(D) Adler

31. A test that can measure the different achievement levels of pupils is said to be:
(A) Comprehensive
(B) Discriminative
(C) Reliable
(D) Valid

32. Triarchic theory of intelligence was developed by:
(A) Gardner
(B) Sternberg
(C) Thorndike
(D) Welschler

33. “Children construct their own understanding through interaction with their environment” Who said this ___________
(A) Skinner
(B) Guilford
(C) Piaget
(D) Burt

34. Guilford ‘s structure of intellect model identifies:
(A) 100 factors
(B) 25 factors
(C) 150 factors
(D) 15 factors

35. Which one of the following is most appropriate to develop higher order cognitive skills?
(A) lecture-demonstration
(B) Role play
(C) Discussion Session
(D) Inquiry learning

36. Which is not included in Aliport’s classification of values:
(A) Aesthetic
(B) Theoretical
(C) Economic
(D) Scientific

37. Which of the following is not correct:
(A) Mental Age
(B) Dental Age
(C) Skeletal Age
(D) Social Age

38. Which one of the following terms is not found in Freud’s theory:
(A) Masochism
(B) Saddism
(C) Animism
(D) Narcissism

39. Identify the term which is not included in Piaget’s theory:
(A) Computational
(B) Combinatorial
(C) Proportional
(D) Probabilistic

40. Maktabs are related to:
(A) Elementary Education
(B) Primary Education
(C) Secondary Education
(D) Higher Education

41. “There can not be educated people without educated women” was indicated by:
(A) The resolution on the National Policy on Education (1968)
(B) The UN declaration on the Elimination of discrimination against women (1967)
(C) The University Education Commission (1948-49)
(D) The National Policy on Education (1986)

42. Which one of the following is a projected aid
(A) Photographs
(B) Flash Cards
(C) Slides
(D) Puppets

43. With whom of the following, the Sociometric technique is associated with:
(A) N. A. Flanders
(B) D. C. Mcclleland
(C) J. F. Moreno
(D) P. V. Young

44. Who called Non-Formal education “Organised out of school education programmes”
(A) Philip Coombs
(B) La Bella
(C) Illich
(D) John Dewey

45. Match list I with List II
    List-I             List-Il
(a) Syntax (i) Meaning
(b) Semantics (ii) Sound
(c) Phonetics (iii) Vocabalary
(d) Lexicon (iv) Grammar
(v) Writing
       (a) (b) (c) (d)
(A) (iii) (ii) (i) (v)
(B) (iv) (i) (ii) (iii)
(C) (iii) (ii) (i) (iv)
(D) (ii) (i) (v) (iii)


previous year paper dec 05 (code 09)


1. ‘Socretic method’ is based on:
(A) Dictation
(B) Discussion
(C) Dialogue
(D) Questioning

2. Match the following List - I and List - II List -

(a) Sankhya          (i) Parswanatha
(b) Buddhism        (ii) Adi Sankara
(c) Jainism           (iii) Kapila
(d) Vedanta          (iv) Nagarjuna
                           (v) Kanada       

     (a)    (b)  (c)   (d)
(A) (iii)  (iv)  (i)   (ii)
(B) (I)    (iii) (iv)  (ii)
(C) (ii)   (v)   (iv)  (iii)
(D) (iv)   (ii)  (iii) (i)

3. Which School of Philosophy has got more faith in Impressionistic discipline?
(A) Existentialism
(B) Realism
(C) Idealism
(D) Pragmatism

4. Match the following List - I with List - II:
List - I
(a) Existentialism          (i) Education for the Instinct
(b) Naturalism               (ii) Education as growth and change
(c) Pragmatism              (iii) Education as an act of discovery       
(d) Idealism                   (iv) Education for development of a Human Personality       
                                      (v) Education for solving life problems

    (a)   (b)  (c)   (d)
(A) (v)   (ii) (iii) (iv)
(B) (iv)  (ii) (iii)  (i)
(C) (ii)  (iv) (i)   (iii)
(D) (ill) (v)  (ii)  (iv)

5. ‘Metaphysics’ is mainly concerned with:
(A) Methods of Instructions
(C) Freedom and discipline
(B) Aims of Education
(D) Curriculum

6. According to Idealism
(A) Ideas are more important than objects
(B) Objects are more important than ideas
(C) Both ideas and objects are important
(D) Both ideas and objects are not important

7. ‘Truth is that which we directly Perceive’. This is according to:
(A) Naturalism
(B) Realism
(C) Existentialism
(D) Idealism

8. The School of Philosophy which gives greatest emphasis to the teacher is:
(A) Realism
(B) Naturalism
(C) Idealism
(D) Existentialism

9. In teaching grammar, the structure of grammar should be linked with the structure of Life.
This instructional strategy was emphasized by
(A) Existentialist
(B) Idealist
(C) Pragmatist
(D) Realist

10. ‘Discipline through direct consequence’ was highlighted by:
(A) Pragmatist
(B) Naturalist
(C) Realist
(D) Existentialist

“The ‘rewards’ play a significant role in learning” is the main characteristic of which of the following approaches to learning?
(A) Behaviouristic
(B) Cognitive
(C) Humanistic
(D) Scientific

A teacher is teaching Science in Class Xl of large size with large individual differences. Which one of the following strategy will be most suitable for managing individual differences ?
(A) Conducting discussion sessions
(B) Using programmed learning material
(C) Using good students for teaching weak
(D) Using simple language while teaching

Which of the following is is not the function of guidance? Assisting an individual.
(A) to get a better job
(B) to discover his own abilities
(C) to boast over his position
(D) to discover his strengths and weaknesses

14. A mathematics teacher discussed some problems in the classroom and then asked the ‘students to work out some problems given in the book. Students are practicing the law of:
(A) Configuity
(B) Reinforcement
(C) Readiness
(D) Exercise

15. Educational Psychology is the science of studying:
(A) human behaviour
(B) human mind
(C) abnormal children in Education
(D) ways to modify students’ behaviour in learning

16. Which of the following technique helps to develop creativity in students?
(A) Group work
(B) Collaborative learning
(C) Brain storming
(D) Question-answer sessions

17. A student is working hard and solving mathematical problems as his father has promised to give him a motor cycle if he gets good marks. This means that student has:
(A) intrinsic motivation
(B) extrinsic motivation
(C) mathematical motivation
(D) intrinsic and extrinsic motivation

18. If a child develops logical operations from simple associations and can add subtract multiply and divide, then the stage of development he has reached is:
(A) Sensory motor
(B) Pre-operational
(C) Concrete operational
(D) Formal operational

19. Match the following:
   List - I             List - II
(a) Bhattia          (i) Interest
(b) Cattell           (ii) Needs
(c) Strong            (iii) Attitude
(d) Maslow         (iv) Intelligence
                           (v) Personality
       (a)   (b)   (c)   (d)
(A) (iv)  (v)    (i)   (ii)
(B) (ii)  (iii)   (iv)  (i)
(C) (iii) (iv)    (i)   (v)
(D) (i)   (ii)    (iii) (iv)

20. Which of the following is true for the processes of ‘growth and development’ ?
(A) Both are natural processes
(B) Growth is natural while development needs external intervention
(C) If growth is satisfactory, development follows
(D) Both the process go together without any external intervention

21. A snake learns to dance to the tune of a flute. Which of the following theories is
appliable in this case?
(A) Skinner’s operant conditioning
(B) Thorndike’s connectionism
(C) Kurt Lewin’s Field Theory
(D) Pavlov’s classical conditioning

22. Which of the following is in the process dimension of Guilford’s structure of Intellect
(A) semantic
(B) cognition
(C) units
(D) implication

23. ‘Cultural capital’ is:
(A) The income generated by cultural organisations
(B) The cultural practices taught in a school
(C) Cultural activities enacted by students in the school function
(D) The economic, social political, family background of a student

24. There is more inter state imbalance in our country in:
(A) Literacy rate
(B) Social change
(C) Social stratification
(D) Social mobility

25. Secularism in our country is:
(A) irreligious
(B) anti religious
(C) non-religious
(D) pro-religious

26. Which of the following is more influential in deciding the sociology of education today in our country?
(A) religion
(B) political system
(C) modernisation
(D) language

27. As a social sub system the main role of education is:
(A) to pass on the social values to successive generations
(B) to point out and correct the defects in the society
(C) to introduce modernisation in the society
(D) to help people lead a peaceful life

28. The sociological effect of more of technology in education will be:
(A) alienation in students
(B) modernisation of the society
(C) cultural invasion
(D) collaboration in classroom learning

29. In the history of education in India, arrange in temporal sequence the predominant influence of the following:
(a) democracy
(b) religion
(c) politics
(d) modernisation
(A) a, b, c, d
(B) b, c, a, d
(C) c, b, d, a
(D) d, a, b, c

30. Equal educational opportunity is a principle derived from:
(A) educational sociology
(B) sociology of education
(C) economics of education
(D) history of education

31. Match the following:
      List - I             List - II
(a) Social Stratification     (i) education
(b) Social Mobility         (ii) modernisation
(c) Social Change         (iii) caste
(d) Social equity         (iv) reservation
(v) religion
Code :(a) (b)   (c)   (d)
(A) (iii) (i)   (ii)  (iv)
(B) (i)   (ii)  (iii) (iv)
(C) (ii)  (iii) (iv)  (i)
(D) (iv)  (ii)  (i)   (v)

32. The role of education with reference to culture is:
(A) preservation
(B) promotion
(C) both preservation and promotion
(D) modernisation

33. t - test is useful when:
(A) means of two groups are to be compared
(B) relationship between two variables is to be determined
(C) the distribution is not normal
(D) the scale of measurement is ordinal

34. Which of the following statement is correct?
(A) One tailed test is used for testing directional hypothesis
(B) One tailed test is used for testing null hypothesis
(C) Two tailed test is used for testing alternate hypothesis
(D) Two tailed test is not used for testing null hypothesis

35. Identify the correct order in which research process should be followed.
(a) Collection of data
(b) Identification of a problem
(c) Testing the hypothesis
(d) Formulating hypothesis
(e) Drawing conclusions
(A) (b), (a), (d), (c), (e)
(B) (b), (d), (a), (c), (e)
(C) (e), (a), (b), (d), (c)
(D) (e), (a), (b), (c), (d)

36. The value of standard deviation is always positive because:
(A) deviations are squared
(B) its value is universaly accepted to be positive
(C) it is the square root of positive number
(D) it indicates the difference within the group

37. Which of the following statement is correct?
(A) Degree of freedom is always in whole number
(B) Degree of freedom can be negative
(C) Degree of freedom can be in fraction
(D) Degree of freedom does not depend on sample size

38. If the correlation coefficient between two halves of a test is 0.52, then the reliability coefficient for the whole test is:
(A) 0.68
(B) 0.52
(C) 0.34
(D) 0.72

39. Experimental research in Physical Sciences and Social Sciences differs in respect of:
(A) Measurement of variables
(B) Control of variables
(C) Manipulation of variables
(D) All the above
40. Match the following List - I with List - II:
List - I List - II
(a) Random Sampling         (i) The unit of sampling cannot be selected directly
(b) Purposive Sampling         (ii) The population is homogeneous and frame is available
(c) Multi-stage Sampling     (iii) The frame is not available
(d) Stratified Proportionate     (iv) The population is heterogeneous and frame is Sampling available
                (v) Population is heterogeneous and geographically wide spread

Code: (a)  (b)   (c)   (d)

(A)   (ii) (i)   (v)   (iii)
(B)   (i)  (ii)  (iii) (iv)
(C)   (ii) (iii) (i)   (iv)
(D)   (v)  (iii) (ii)  (i)

41. “A study of frustration of 18 year old children studying in schools situated in Tsunami affected Area in India”. This research will be:
(A) Descriptive Research
(B) Ex-port facto Research
(C) Field Experiment Research
(D) Action Research

42. Chi-square test can be used when scale of measurement is:
(A) Ordinal
(B) Interval
(C) Nominal
(D) Ratio

43. For a chi-square test 4 x 3 contingency table is formed. What is the degrees of freedom?
(A) 12
(B) 9
(C) 6
(D) 7

44. To study the joint contribution of Intelligence, stress, adjustment and self-confidence to
Achievement in science of class X students.
The most appropriate statistical technique used for analysing the data related to this
objective is:
(A) Partial correlation
(B) Phi-coefficient correlation
(C) Multiple correlation
(D) Point-biserial correlation

45. Read the following statements:
(I) The table value of One Tailed Test is lower than Two Tailed Test irrespective of level of significance.
(II) The table value of One Tailed Test is higher than Two Tailed Test irrespective of level of significance.
(III) The sum of square value can be negative as well as positive depending upon the value of correction factor.
(IV) The sum of square value is always positive irrespective of the value of correction factor.

Of the above statements, which one is correct?
(A) Only statement I
(B) Both statements I and IV
(C) Statements II, III and IV
(D) Statements I, II, III and IV